Digestive System – Introduction | Biology


Hello student! In this lesson we are going to cover the digestive system. When we are talking about the digestive system we are mainly focusing upon the human digestive system. So when we talk about the human digestive system, it is majorly divided into two parts and these are the digestive tract and the digestive glands and the organs. So when we see the digestive tract, we see that it is nothing but a passage from where we ingest the food, then digest it and the waste materials are expelled out. The digestive tract, it can also be call as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract or in simple terms we can call it gut. So gut is the small name of the digestive tract. Now when we see the digestive glands or the organs, these are those elements of the system which helps in the process of digestion. So now let’s see the digestive tract in detail. So when we are talking about the digestive tract it is divided into three major parts. So the first part in here is the foregut. So this is the foregut. This is the first or the interior most part of the digestive tract. The next part is the mid gut. So, like its name it is the middle part of the gut, right? At the end we see there is the hindgut. So this is the posterior most or the end part of the digestive system. Now moving forward we will find out that the foregut is again divided into various parts, where in the first part from where the digestive tract starts is the mouth. So we all know that we ingest food with the help of mouth. The second part, after mouth, the food goes to the oral cavity. So this is a cavity which is present after mouth. Next we see it is the pharynx. So pharynx, they come after oral cavity. Now the third part is the long tube-like structure which is oesophagus. So oesophagus, it is next to the pharynx and the last part of the foregut is our stomach. So we all know that food goes to the stomach after we ingest it, right? Next we see the midgut. Again the midgut is also divided into two regions and these two are: firstly, the small intestine – so this is the small intestine and the second these are the large intestine. So these two, these are the parts of mid- gut. Now this small and large intestine, they are also divided into few parts. So if I see the first one, the first one is called as the duodenum. So this is duodenum. This is the first part of our small intestine. The second part is the jejunum, this is the middle part of the small intestine and lastly it is the ileum this is the third part of our small intestine. Now next if I see the large intestine, it is again further divided into three parts, where in the first part is called as caecum, the second part is called as colon and the third or the last part is what we call the rectum. So you see that the small intestine and the large intestine they’re further divided into some parts and these are basically the parts of the midgut. Ok, now moving forward if I see the hind gut, it has only one part which is the end part of the digestive system which is the anus. So all these parts together they form the digestive tract. So firstly we have seen the foregut which is divided into mouth, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and stomach. Next we saw the midgut which is divided into small intestine and large intestine which are further divided into some parts and lastly the hindgut which is, which actually has only one part which is the anus. So this is the last part of our digestive tract. Now moving forward if I see digestive glands or let’s say the organs – they are also divided into various parts and these parts, we can say, that they have, so firstly if I see it is the salivary gland. So salivary gland, these are located in the mouth, right? Next is the teeth. So teeth they are again in the mouth and the help in the process of digestion. Similarly, there is tongue in the mouth. It is also the part of digestive organs. Next if we move forward we will see that there are gastric glands. So these gastric glands, they are located in the stomach region, Ok! Next I’ll see that there are liver. So this is an organ which is present, you know, on the right side of the stomach and this is one of the most important organs which are useful for the process of digestion. Moving forward, you will see that there are pancreas present. So pancreas again these are the digestive glands. Now lastly if we see, we have the intestinal glands. So we can simply guess that intestinal glands are present in the intestines. Now there is one more organ present in the digestive gland, which actually is present inside the or around the liver and we call it as gall bladder. So you see that all these organs or glands, they help us in the process of digestion. So now let’s begin and see that where these digestive tract and glands are exactly located. Let’s have a look at their figure. Ok, so moving forward we will share the structure of digestive gland. So here I show you the structure of the digestive system. So now we have to see the digestive system. Now this is the digestive system of our body. Let’s try and locate all the parts that we have seen till now. So firstly if I see this part, it is the mouth, right? So this one we label as mouth. Next, this cavity that we can see in here, it is nothing but what we call the oral cavity. So this is the oral cavity. The next part that we spoke about is the pharynx. So this part is what we call the pharynx. So this is the common passage of air as well as food and it is located in here. Next we are going to see the oesophagus. So this one, the long tube-like structure is the oesophagus. Next part that we spoke about from the foregut is the stomach. So we all know that the stomach, it is located in this region. So this one will be called as stomach, right? Ok, next if I see the parts of midgut, so we know that midgut has two major parts: this one is called as the small intestine and this green part here is the large intestine, right? So these are some of the parts of foregut and these two are the parts of midgut. Of course the stomach is also part of foregut, right? Next I’m going to show you some of the parts of hindgut. So hindgut, as we know, it has this part which is the anus. So this one is the hindgut, Ok! Next let’s focus upon some of the parts of digestive glands. So the first digestive gland is the salivary gland. It is located in the facial region and these are the salivary glands. Next we’re going to see the teeth. So these are here the teeth located, Ok! Next we will find that this is the tongue in here. So the tongue falls on the floor of the oral cavity. Moving forward we will see that in the stomach we find the gastric glands. The gastric glands like I told you, they are located in the stomach. Next, this red thing that you can see in here it is the largest organ, the liver, Ok! This green pouch like structure inside the liver is what we can call the gall bladder. Next another green thing, a leaf like structure falling just behind the stomach that you see in here are the pancreas, Ok! So these are some of the glands that we have seen in the digestive glands. Last that what we are going to see is the intestinal glands and of course the intestinal glands are present inside the intestines, majorly or basically in the small intestine. So these are the intestinal glands. So till now we have seen all the major parts of the digestive system, right from the mouth and which ends at the anus. It is the digestive tract and the digestive glands or the organs are the tongue, teeth salivary gland, liver, gastric gland, gall bladder, pancreas and the intestinal glands.

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