CMV infection after transplant

CMV infection after transplant

Cytomegalovirus, or CMV, is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the herpesviridae family. It’s one of the most common viruses to cause severe infection in individuals undergoing transplantation of bone marrow or solid organs like the liver or kidney. It can affect almost …

Gastric cancer – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Gastric cancer – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Gastric cancer is when malignant or cancerous cells arise …

Type IV hypersensitivity (cell-mediated) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Type IV hypersensitivity (cell-mediated) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Having a hypersensitivity means that someone’s immune system has …

Premature Ventricular Contraction – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Premature Ventricular Contraction – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

The heart has two lower chambers, called the ventricles, so a premature ventricular contraction is when the ventricles contract earlier than normal in the cardiac cycle. This happens because an abnormal contraction signal, called a depolarization, originates from somewhere in the ventricles rather than coming …

Small bowel ischemia & infarction – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Small bowel ischemia & infarction – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Small bowel refers to the small intestine and infarction is when ischemia, which is an inadequate blood supply, causes necrosis, or tissue death. So, a small bowel infarction happens when there’s a reduced blood supply to the small intestine causing parts of the intestinal wall …

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms- causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms- causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, neuroendocrine refers to pancreatic cells which release hormones in response to signals from the nerves, and neoplasm refers to a cancer. So, pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm is a cancer of neuroendocrine cells that are within the pancreas. They can also be called …

Normal heart sounds

Normal heart sounds

If you put a stethoscope over the chest, you’ll usually hear something that sounds like lub dub, lub dub, lub dub, which repeats over and over again, with each cardiac cycle, or heartbeat. Now, the question is, where does this sound come from? Normally, blood …

Candidal Infections – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Candidal Infections – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Candida is a yeast, not the maple syrup-loving country in North America – although Candida can be found in Canada as well! Candida sometimes causes a mild yeast infection, but in some situations, can get into the bloodstream and cause severe illness. Now, there are …

An Osmosis Video: Heart Attack Explained

An Osmosis Video: Heart Attack Explained

According to the world health organization, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, as well as in the US. Of those, a large proportion are caused by heart attacks, also known as acute myocardial infarctions, or just myocardial infarctions, sometimes just called MI. …

HIV & AIDS – signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology

HIV & AIDS – signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology

HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a virus that targets cells in the immune system. Over time, the immune system begins to fail which is called immunodeficiency, and this increases the risk of infections and tumors that a healthy immune system would usually be able …