How do animals experience pain? – Robyn J. Crook

How do animals experience pain? – Robyn J. Crook

Humans know the surprising prick of a needle, the searing pain of a stubbed toe, and the throbbing of a toothache. We can identify many types of pain and have multiple ways of treating it. But what about other species? How do the animals all …

The effects of underwater pressure on the body – Neosha S Kashef

The effects of underwater pressure on the body – Neosha S Kashef

Sometimes when a fish is reeled up to the surface it will appear inflated, with its eyes bulging out of their sockets and its stomach projecting out of its mouth, as if its been blown up like a balloon. This type of bodily damage, caused …

Is it Bad To Eat Before Bed?

Many people wonder when the best time is to eat a big meal. Are 10-course dinners before bed o.k., or is it a must to eat a healthy breakfast? Instinctively we know the answer to these questions, but here’s a breakdown of exactly why eating …

What causes cavities? – Mel Rosenberg

What causes cavities? – Mel Rosenberg

When a team of archaeologists recently came across some 15,000 year-old human remains, they made an interesting discovery. The teeth of those ancient humans were riddled with holes. Their cavities were caused by the same thing that still plagues us today, specific tiny microbes that …

How the food you eat affects your gut – Shilpa Ravella

How the food you eat affects your gut – Shilpa Ravella

Trillions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi live on or inside of us, and maintaining a good, balanced relationship with them is to our advantage. Together, they form the gut microbiome, a rich ecosystem that performs a variety of functions in our bodies. The bacteria in …

What causes kidney stones? – Arash Shadman

What causes kidney stones? – Arash Shadman

The biggest kidney stone on record weighed more than a kilogram and was 17 centimeters in diameter. The patient didn’t actually swallow a stone the size of a coconut. Kidney stones form inside the body, but unfortunately, they’re extremely painful to get out. A kidney …

What causes heartburn? – Rusha Modi

What causes heartburn? – Rusha Modi

Just between your chest and abdomen is where you’ll find one of the most important muscles you probably didn’t know you had: the lower esophageal sphincter, or LES. When functioning properly, this ring of tissue plays a crucial role in helping us eat. But when …

The surprising cause of stomach ulcers – Rusha Modi

The surprising cause of stomach ulcers – Rusha Modi

In 1984, an enterprising Australian doctor named Barry Marshall decided to take a risk. Too many of his patients were complaining of severe abdominal pain due to stomach ulcers, which are sores in the lining of the upper intestinal tract. At the time, few effective …